Fully notated Gradual with sequences integrated and Kyriale
complete or nearly complete
Archdiocese of Sens
Archdiocese of Sens
The manuscript consists of Proprium de Tempore (fols. 1–158r), Proprium Sanctorum (fols. 158r–215), Commune Sanctorum (fols. 216–244) and a final section with Kyriale and other chants (fol. 245 to the end).
The Proprium de Tempore starts with the Mass for the first Sunday of Advent and ends with the Mass for the 24th Sunday after the octave of Pentecost. The Proprium Sanctorum starts with the Vigil for Andrew and ends with the Mass for Catherine. Then, there is the Commune Sanctorum whose last Mass is for the Common of one Virgin, followed by a lacuna and the final section.
The style of foliation and the Mass for St Louis connect Iluminado 84 to a French milieu while the absence of custodes restricts the area of provenance to Northern France. The Alleluia verses and the sequences allow a secure identification of the origins of Iluminado 84 in Sens. Specifically, the examination of the sequences demonstrates that Iluminado 84 can be considered as the oldest surviving manuscript transmitting some of the earlier sequences for Sens fully notated.
The manuscript is made of two codicological units written respectively by scribe A (fols. 1-250) and scribe B (fols. 251-267). No interventions of Scribe A can be found on Scribe B’s final supplement, whereas Scribe B made several later changes/additions to Scribe A’s folios. The analysis of the liturgical feasts found in Scribe A and B’s sections confirms two phases in the creation of Iluminado 84.
Scribe A’s section does not contain any feast instituted after the middle of the thirteenth century; here the most ‘modern’ feast is the Reception of Crown of Thorns, instituted in the early 1240s. Scribe B’s section contains the most recent liturgical feasts of Iluminado 84. The section starts with the Corporis Christi (fols. 251r-255r), a feast instituted by Pope Urban IV in 1264 . Iluminado 84 provides also chants for the dominica infra octava and the octave (fols. 255r-258r). Besides, in this section we can read the Mass for St Louis, which is the most recently instituted liturgical feast of Iluminado 84. All these pieces of evidence hint that Scribe A copied from a model dated after 1240s (but not much later than 1264). Scribe B instead copied from a model dated after 1297 (the date of the institution of St Louis’s feast) and the supplement he created was probably supposed to integrate the contents of Iluminado 84 with some recently instituted liturgical feasts and their chants.
Nothing is known about the date and the reason why the manuscript was brought to Lisbon.
Condition of document:
It is still in good condition and quite readable in spite of some spots resulting from humidity.
There are two foliations: a continuous modern foliation written by pen in Arabic numbers and the original foliation written in red Roman numbers.
All the references to Iluminado 84 are given here following the modern foliation.
The original foliation is written in French style. This means that, for example, 180 is given as “C.IIII.” where each “I” represents twenty folios, and the value of twenty folios “XX” is written above the “IIII”. The whole is to be read as: 'cent quatre-vingt'. In this way, folio 181 is written as “C.IIII.I”, 191 as “C.IIII.XI” and so on. In this type of foliation there is always the typical indication “XX” just immediately above the “IIII”.
The original foliation has many gaps which confirm the loss of some leaves. The gaps in the original foliation shows lacunae between: fols. 50 - 51 (1 folio); 182-183 (1 folio); 188-189 (1 folio), 244-245 (2 folios); 250-251 (5 folios), 258-259 (1 folio); 261-262 (1 folio); 262-263 (1 folio).
The original foliation on folios 253 and 254 is respectively '264' and '263'. These two folios contain the sequence 'Lauda Syon'. The examination of the text and music on these folios confirms that they are in the right order and the mistake is in the original numbering.
The modern foliation has two folios '246' ('246A' is followed by '246'), their original foliation is respectively '251' and '250'.
Mistakes in the original foliation: there are two folios numbered '143'; the foliation is missing on folios: 91, 148, 157, 158, 220. The last folio of Iluminado 84 is numbered '267' as modern foliation and '280' in Roman numbers.
Text arranged full page with eight tetragrams per page. Occasionally an exta tetragram is found and in these cases it was added by Scribe B on folios originally written by Scribe A, e.g. 70r/9, 118v/9, 223v/9 etc.
Type of script:
Type of notation:
Red and blue initials with filigree. Rubrics and tetragrams in red. Text and notation in black. The initial 'I' for 'in festivitate beatissime anne' is missing (fol. 258r). Some decorated initials were trimmed and stolen (fols. 135, 210, 218, 251).
Unidentified modern stamp on fol. 1r.
On fol. 100r there is a sketch of a human face near the library stamp of the Biblioteca Nacional of Lisbon.
Three coats of arms are sketched by a modern hand on 125r.
Two sketches of Christ's face can be seen at the bottom of fol. 220r.
A modern hand outlined a female figure along the border of fol. 237v.
The vast majority of I84 is written by Scribe A (fols. 1-250). Scribe B took over on 251 and finished the copy of the manuscript. The main differences between these two scribes can be seen in the decoration of the initials. Usually Scribe A wrote simple pen-work initials while Scribe B preferred inhabited initials and showed much more skill. Scribe A’s initials have the internal space broken up by horizontal lines and the inner sections of the initials are alternatively left empty and painted with a lick of yellow , e.g. fol. 50r. Scribe A’s highest degree of complexity in the decoration consists in filling the inner sections with four-leaf shapes, e.g. 'Angelis' fol. 49v, 'Verbo' fol. 72v, 'Oramus' fol. 101r.
Scribe B’s inhabited initials occasionally show the same four-leaf shape but Scribe B’s initials are much more ornamented and complex than A’s, e.g. 'Aperis' fol. 252r, 'Beati' fol. 267r. Probably Scribe B is the author of the female face drawn on the right border of 166r.
No interventions of Scribe A can be seen on the folios written by Scribe B. On the contrary, Scribe B made several interventions on Scribe A's folios. Scribe B’s later hand interventions/changes found on Scribe A’s folios usually consist of: tetragram(s) added at the bottom of the page, extra rubrics, or erasures and rewriting of portions of text and music. Scribe B completed I84 after Scribe A had created the original bulk of I84. Scribe B’s final supplement was created trying to maintain a stylistic continuity with the original bulk, as we can observe in the style of foliation, mise en page (8 tetragrams per page) and even in the decoration of the initials (in spite of the fact that Scribe B was much more talented than Scribe A).
Inscriptions and marks:
Occasionally custodes can be found but they are later additions.
Some later hand inscriptions tell us that the manuscript was in Joigny (near Sens) at the end of the 17th century.
The manuscript was written by two scribes A (fols. 1-250), and B (fols. 251-267).
Later interventions by B can be found on: 70r/9, 74v/9,10, 103r/9, 106v/9, 116r/4, 117r/1,2,9,10, 118v/9, 128v/1,6,8, 139v/2, 143v/9, 145r/9, 148v/9, 152r/2, 156v/1,4, 158r/4,5, 163r/1, 172v/9, 179v/6, 180v/3,8, 189v/1, 191v/7, 194v/9, 198v/1,2,3 6,9, 202r/3, 205r/3, 208r/1, 208v/6, 209v/1,2,3,4, 211v/4,5,9, 213r (bottom tetragram), 223v/9, 230r/1, 245v/9, 246av/9.
Other later hands text interventions can be seen on fols. 1r, 2v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, 10v,12r, 14v,16v, 18v, 21r, 23v, 25v, 28r, 29r, 34v, 40v, 42v, 43v, 45r, 47v, 48r, 49r, 51rv, 55v, 57v, 59r, 60r, 62v, 63v, 64r, 65r, 66v, 70rv, 71r, 74v, 75r, 76r, 77v, 81v, 82r, 87r, 90rv, 93v, 95v, 96v, 97r, 99r, 103r, 105v, 117r, 119r, 122r, 141v, 145v, 146v, 152r, 154r, 158v, 159r, 167r, 183rv, 188v, 196r, 197r, 201r, 225v, 226r, 230v-231r, 234v, 240r, 243r, 244r, 245v, 246v, 247r, 248r, 249rv, 263v.